Pioneers of Animation

Winsor McCay was the first pioneer of Animation back in (1869 -1964)

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Winsor_McCay&redirect=no     Here is the link to where i got this information.

Zenas Winsor McCay (c. 1867–1871 – July 26, 1934) was an American cartoonist and animator. He is best known for the comic strip Little Nemo (1905–1914; 1924–1926) and the animated film Gertie the Dinosaur (1914). For contractual reasons, he worked under the pen name Silas on the comic strip Dream of the Rarebit Fiend.

From a young age, McCay was a quick, prolific, and technically dextrous artist. He started his professional career making posters and performing for dime museums, and began illustrating newspapers and magazines in 1898. He joined the New York Herald in 1903, where he created popular comic strips such as Little Sammy Sneeze and Dream of the Rarebit Fiend. In 1905, his signature strip Little Nemo in Slumberland debuted, a fantasy strip in an Art Nouveaustyle, about a young boy and his adventurous dreams. The strip demonstrated McCay’s strong graphic sense and mastery of color and linear perspective. McCay experimented with the formal elements of the comic strip page, arranging and sizing panels to increase impact and enhance elements of the narrative. McCay also produced numerous detailed editorial cartoons and was a popular performer of chalk talks on the vaudeville circuit.

McCay was an early animation pioneer. Between 1911 and 1921 McCay self-financed and animated ten films, some of which survive only as fragments. The first three served as part of his vaudeville act, Gertie the Dinosaur, an interactive routine in which McCay appeared to give orders to a trained dinosaur. McCay and his assistants worked for twenty-two months on his most ambitious film, The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918), a patriotic recreation of the German torpedoing in 1915 of the RMS Lusitania. Lusitania was not as commercially successful as the earlier films, and McCay’s later movies attracted little attention. His animation, vaudeville, and comic strip work was gradually curtailed as newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, his employer since 1911, expected McCay to devote his energies to editorial illustrations.

In his drawing, McCay made bold, prodigious use of linear perspective, particularly in detailed architecture and cityscapes. He textured his editorial cartoons with fine hatching, and made color a central element in Little Nemo. His comic strip work has influenced generations of cartoonists and illustrators. The technical level of McCay’s animation—its naturalism, smoothness, and scale—was unmatched until Walt Disney’s feature films arrived in the 1930s. He pioneered inbetweening, the use of registration marks, cycling, and other animation techniques that later became standard.

Walt Disney

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Walt_Disney_Animation_Studios_films

This is a list of films from Walt Disney Animation Studios, an American animation studio headquartered in Burbank,California,[1] and formerly known as Walt Disney Feature Animation, Walt Disney Productions and Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, which creates animated feature films for The Walt Disney Company. The studio has produced 54 feature films, beginning with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), and most recently with Big Hero 6 (2014).[2] Their 55th feature,Zootopia, is currently in production and is scheduled for release on March 4, 2016.[3] Three features are also in development, with Moana being set for release on November 23, 2016,[3] and Giants,[4] an untitled film in 2018,[5] and a sequel to Frozen.[6]

Perception of animation 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persistence_of_vision

Persistence of vision is the theory where an afterimage is thought to persist for approximately one sixteenth of a second on the retina,[citation needed] and believed to be the explanation for motion perception; however, it only explains why the black spaces that come between each “real” movie frame are not perceived. The true reason for motion perception is the phi phenomenon while the true reason for perception of continuous light is Flicker fusion.

The theory of persistence of vision is the belief that human perception of motion (brain centered) is the result of persistence of vision (eye centered). The theory was disproved in 1912 by Wertheimer[1] but persists in many citations in many classic and modern film-theory texts.[2][3][4] A more plausible theory to explain motion perception (at least on a descriptive level) are two distinct perceptual illusions: phi phenomenon and beta movement.

A visual form of memory known as iconic memory has been described as the cause of this phenomenon.[5]Although psychologists and physiologists have rejected the relevance of this theory to film viewership, film academics and theorists generally have not. Some scientists nowadays consider the entire theory a myth.[6]

In contrasting persistence of vision theory with phi phenomena, a critical part of understanding that emerges with these visual perception phenomena is that the eye is not a camera and does not see in frames per second. In other words vision is not as simple as light registering on a medium, since the brain has to make sense of the visual data the eye provides and construct a coherent picture of reality. Joseph Anderson and Barbara Fisher argue that the phi phenomena privileges a more constructionist approach to the cinema (David Bordwell, Noël Carroll, Kirsten Thompson), whereas the persistence of vision privileges a realist approach (André Bazin, Christian Metz, Jean-Louis Baudry).[6]

The discovery of persistence of vision is attributed to the Roman poet Lucretius, although he only mentions it in connection with images seen in a dream.[7] In the modern era, some stroboscopic experiments performed by Peter Mark Roget in 1824 were also cited as the basis for the theory.[8]

Types of animation named after a software

Techniques in Animation     http://www.the-flying-animator.com/animation-techniques.html  

Some types of animation are named after the software used to create them.
Flash animation has come to mean a certain kind of graphic look and feel, which has also spawned the pleading request “Can you make it NOT look like Flash, PLEASE!”

There are also:

  • GIF animations – GIF is a type of file format, used for small, light weight animations with no more than a few frames.
  • After Effects animation – usually means either cut outs done in After Effects, or animation done with the program’s Puppet Tool (which is amazing, BTW).
  • Blender, Mudbox, and Maya – all names of 3D animation softwares.
  • Pivot stick figure – A freeware for making stick figure animations. So simple, and so popular!
  • Morphing is a type of animation that uses a software to fill in the gap between two images – MJ’s “Black or White” music video.

Transcript

  • 1. Animation The different techniques explained A presentation by Andrea Joyce
  • 2. Hand drawn animation
    • Traditional animation, also referred to as classical animation, cel animation, or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. In a traditionally-animated cartoon, each frame is drawn by hand
    • Disney used this type of animation, some animators, even those working in the industry today, choose to use the traditional drawn method. Others use computer programmes that simulate the traditional method such as photoshop
  • 3. Stop Motion Animation
    • Stop-motion animation, is the term used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement.
    • There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the type of media used to create the animation, these include:
    • Cutout animation
    • Claymation animation
    • Model animation (like the classic King-Kong)
    • Object animation
    • Puppet animation
  • 4. Cutout Animation Cutout animation is a unique technique for producing animations using flat characters, props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper, card, stiff fabric or even photographs. The world’s earliest known animated feature films were cutout animations (made in Argentina by Quirino Cristiani as early as 1917) Angela Anaconda is a contemporary example of the use of cutout animation. The programme combines black-and-white photographs with cutout-style CGI animation. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=utgXR6k-P1s
  • 5. Clay animation/Claymation
    • In clay animation, which is one of the many forms of stop motion animation, each object is sculpted in clay or a similarly pliable material such as Plasticine, usually around a wire skeleton called an armature.
    • Producing a stop motion animation using clay is extremely laborious. 12 changes are usually made for one second of film movement. For a 30-minute movie, there would be approximately 21,600 stops to change the figures for the frames. For a full length (90 min) movie, there would be approximately 64,800 stops and possibly far more if parts were shot with "singles" or "ones" (one frame exposed for each shot). Great care must be taken to ensure the object is not altered by accident, by even slight smudges, dirt, hair, or even dust. For feature-length productions, the use of clay has generally been supplanted by rubber silicone and resin-cast components.
  • 6. Computer animation
    • Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying idea being that the animation is created digitally on a computer.
    • The term covers 2D animation using Flash to the CGi techniques used in Pixar’s many successful films.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5YmIS57J9E

  • 7. Sand Animation
    • During the process of sand animation an artist creates a series of images using sand, a process which is achieved by applying sand to a surface and then rendering images by drawing lines and figures in the sand with one’s hands.
    • To increase visibility and to add further artistic aesthetic, a sand animation performer will often use the aid of an overhead projector or lightboard. In the latter, animators move around sand on a backlighted or frontlighted piece of glass to create each frame for their animated films.
  • 8. Drawn on film animation
    • Drawn on film animation (also known as "direct animation", or "animation without camera") is an animation technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock, as opposed to any other form of animation where the images or objects are photographed frame by frame with an animation camera
    • There are two basic methods to produce animation directly on film. One starts with blank film stock, the other one with black (already developed) film. On blank film the artist can draw, paint, stamp, or even glue objects. Black film (or any footage) can be scratched, etched, sanded, or punched. Any tool the artist finds useful may be used for this, and all techniques can be combined endlessly. The frame borders may be observed or completely ignored, found footage may be included, any existing image might be distorted by mechanical or chemical means.
    • The first and best known practictioners of drawn on film animation were Len Lye and Norman McLaren, who produced numerous animated films using these methods. Their work already covered the whole span between storytelling and totally abstract animation.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FvF04GUjVUs Here is a link on you tube Drawing for Animation.

Animation tutorials by Mario Furmanczyk – Disney animator, Calarts alum and creator of Animatedbuzz.com

Animatedbuzz  Here is the link to the you tube clip  below.   https://youtu.be/bYnFnoRvjYw 

Glen Keane’s Hand-drawn animation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JjbK9RlCL3I

Traditional animation (also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation) was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, first drawn on paper. To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it. The animators’ drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called cels, which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings. The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one against a painted background by a rostrum camera onto motion picture film.

The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. Today, animators’ drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system. Various software programs are used to color the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects. The final animated piece is output to one of several delivery media, including traditional 35 mm film and newer media such as digital video. The “look” of traditional cel animation is still preserved, and the character animators’ work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years. Some animation producers have used the term “tradigital” to describe cel animation which makes extensive use of computer technology.

Examples of traditionally animated feature films include Pinocchio (United States, 1940), Animal Farm (United Kingdom, 1954), and The Illusionist (British-French, 2010). Traditionally animated films which were produced with the aid of computer technology include The Lion King (US, 1994), Akira (Japan, 1988), Spirited Away (Japan, 2001), The Triplets of Belleville (France, 2003), and The Secret of Kells(Irish-French-Belgian, 2009).

  • Full animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films that regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement, having a smooth animation. Fully animated films can be made in a variety of styles, from more realistically animated works such as those produced by the Walt Disney studio (Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, Lion King) to the more ‘cartoon’ styles of the Warner Bros. animation studio. Many of the Disney animated features are examples of full animation, as are non-Disney works such as The Secret of NIMH (US, 1982), The Iron Giant (US, 1999), and Nocturna (Spain, 2007).
  • Limited animation involves the use of less detailed or more stylized drawings and methods of movement usually a choppy or “skippy” movement animation. Pioneered by the artists at the American studio United Productions of America, limited animation can be used as a method of stylized artistic expression, as inGerald McBoing Boing (US, 1951), Yellow Submarine (UK, 1968), and much of the anime produced in Japan. Its primary use, however, has been in producing cost-effective animated content for media such as television (the work of Hanna-Barbera, Filmation, and other TV animation studios) and later the Internet (web cartoons).
  • Rotoscoping is a technique patented by Max Fleischer in 1917 where animators trace live-action movement, frame by frame. The source film can be directly copied from actors’ outlines into animated drawings, as in The Lord of the Rings (US, 1978), or used in a stylized and expressive manner, as in Waking Life (US, 2001) and A Scanner Darkly (US, 2006). Some other examples are: Fire and Ice (US, 1983), Heavy Metal (1981), and Aku no Hana (2013).
  • Live-action/animation is a technique combining hand-drawn characters into live action shots. One of the earlier uses was in Koko the Clown when Koko was drawn over live action footage. Other examples include Who Framed Roger Rabbit (US, 1988), Space Jam (US, 1996) and Osmosis Jones (US, 2001).

§Stop motion animation[edit]

Main article: Stop motion

Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement. There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the medium used to create the animation. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation; however, traditional stop motion animation is usually less expensive and time-consuming to produce than current computer animation.

  • Puppet animation typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting in a constructed environment, in contrast to real-world interaction in model animation. The puppets generally have an armature inside of them to keep them still and steady as well as to constrain their motion to particular joints. Examples include The Tale of the Fox (France, 1937), The Nightmare Before Christmas (US, 1993), Corpse Bride (US, 2005), Coraline (US, 2009), the films ofJiří Trnka and the TV series Robot Chicken (US, 2005–present).
    • Puppetoon, created using techniques developed by George Pal, are puppet-animated films which typically use a different version of a puppet for different frames, rather than simply manipulating one existing puppet.

A clay animation scene from aFinnish television commercial

  • Clay animation, or Plasticine animation (often called claymation, which, however, is a trademarked name), uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. The figures may have an armature or wire frame inside, similar to the related puppet animation (below), that can be manipulated to pose the figures. Alternatively, the figures may be made entirely of clay, such as in the films of Bruce Bickford, where clay creatures morph into a variety of different shapes. Examples of clay-animated works include The Gumby Show (US, 1957–1967) Morph shorts (UK, 1977–2000), Wallace and Gromit shorts (UK, as of 1989), Jan Švankmajer’s Dimensions of Dialogue (Czechoslovakia, 1982), The Trap Door (UK, 1984). Films include Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit, Chicken Run and The Adventures of Mark Twain.
  • Cutout animation is a type of stop-motion animation produced by moving two-dimensional pieces of material such as paper or cloth. Examples include Terry Gilliam’s animated sequences from Monty Python’s Flying Circus (UK, 1969–1974); Fantastic Planet (France/Czechoslovakia, 1973) ; Tale of Tales (Russia, 1979), The pilot episode of the TV series (and sometimes in episodes) of South Park (US, 1997) and the music video Live for the moment, from Verona Riots band (produced by Alberto Serrano and Nívola Uyá, Spain 2014). ** Silhouette animation is a variant of cutout animation in which the characters are backlit and only visible as silhouettes. Examples include The Adventures of Prince Achmed (Weimar Republic, 1926) and Princes et princesses (France, 2000).
  • Model animation refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of a live-action world. Intercutting, matte effects, and split screens are often employed to blend stop-motion characters or objects with live actors and settings. Examples include the work of Ray Harryhausen, as seen in films such Jason and the Argonauts (1963), and the work of Willis O’Brien on films such as King Kong (1933 film).
    • Go motion is a variant of model animation that uses various techniques to create motion blur between frames of film, which is not present in traditional stop-motion. The technique was invented by Industrial Light & Magic and Phil Tippett to create special effects scenes for the film The Empire Strikes Back (1980). Another example is the dragon named “Vermithrax” from Dragon slayer (1981 film).
  • Object animation refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation, as opposed to specially created items.
    • Graphic animation uses non-drawn flat visual graphic material (photographs, newspaper clippings, magazines, etc.), which are sometimes manipulated frame-by-frame to create movement. At other times, the graphics remain stationary, while the stop-motion camera is moved to create on-screen action.
    • Brick film A sub genre of object animation involving using Lego or other similar brick toys to make an animation. These have had a recent boost in popularity with the advent of video sharing sites like YouTube and the availability of cheap cameras and animation software.
  • Pixilation involves the use of live humans as stop motion characters. This allows for a number of surreal effects, including disappearances and reappearances, allowing people to appear to slide across the ground, and other such effects. Examples of pixilation include The Secret Adventures of Tom Thumb and Angry Kid shorts

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animation    Here is the link to the Techniques of animation above.

Terry Gilliam

Terry Gilliam Reveals the Secrets of Monty Python Animations: A 1974 How-To Guide

Before he directed such mind-bending masterpieces as Time Bandits, Brazil and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, before he became short-hand for a filmmaker cursed with cosmically bad luck, before he became the sole American member of seminal British comedy group Monty Python, Terry Gilliam made a name for himself creating odd animated bits for the UK series Do Not Adjust Your Set. Gilliam preferred cut-out animation, which involved pushing bits of paper in front of a camera instead of photographing pre-drawn cels. The process allows for more spontaneity than traditional animation along with being comparatively cheaper and easier to do.

Gilliam also preferred to use old photographs and illustrations to create sketches that were surreal and hilarious. Think Max Ernst meets Mad Magazine. For Monty Python’s Flying Circus, he created some of the most memorable moments of a show chock full of memorable moments: A pram that devours old ladies, a massive cat that menaces London, and a mustached police officer who pulls open his shirt to reveal the chest of a shapely woman. He also created the show’s most iconic image, that giant foot during the title sequence.

On Bob Godfrey’s series Do It Yourself Film Animation Show, Gilliam delved into the nuts and bolts of his technique. You can watch it above. Along the way, he sums up his thoughts on the medium:

The whole point of animation to me is to tell a story, make a joke, express an idea. The technique itself doesn’t really matter. Whatever works is the thing to use. That’s why I use cut-out. It’s the easiest form of animation I know.

He also notes that the key to cut-out animation is to know its limitations. Graceful, elegant movement à la Walt Disney is damned near impossible. Swift, sudden movements, on the other hand, are much simpler. That’s why there are far more beheadings in his segments than ballroom dancing. Watch the whole clip. If you are a hardcore Python enthusiast, as I am, it is pleasure to watch him work. Below find one of his first animated movies,Story time, which includes, among other things, the tale of Don the Cockroach. Also don’t miss, this video featuring All of Terry Gilliam’s Monty Python Animations in a Row.

Related Content: 

The Best Animated Films of All Time, According to Terry Gilliam

Terry Gilliam: The Difference Between Kubrick (Great Filmmaker) and Spielberg (Less So)

The Miracle of Flight, the Classic Early Animation by Terry Gilliam

Jonathan Crow is a Los Angeles-based writer and filmmaker whose work has appeared in Yahoo!, The Hollywood Reporter, and other publications. You can follow him at @jonccrow.

http://www.openculture.com/2014/07/terry-gilliam-reveals-the-secrets-of-monty-python-animations.html

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